Criteria The Navy Good Conduct Medal (NGCM) is a decoration presented by the United States Navy to recognize members who have completed three years of honorable service. Medals awarded before January 1, 1996 r... The Navy Good Conduct Medal (NGCM) is a decoration presented by the United States Navy to recognize members who have completed three years of honorable service. Medals awarded before January 1, 1996 required four years of service. MoreHide
Criteria The National Defense Service Medal is awarded for honorable active service as a member of the Armed Forces during the Korean War, Vietnam War, the war against Iraq in the Persian Gulf, and for service... The National Defense Service Medal is awarded for honorable active service as a member of the Armed Forces during the Korean War, Vietnam War, the war against Iraq in the Persian Gulf, and for service during the current War on Terrorism. In addition, all members of the National Guard and Reserve who were part of the Selected Reserve in good standing between August 2, 1990, to November 30, 1995, are eligible for the National Defense Service Medal. In the case of Navy personnel, Midshipment attending the Naval Academy during the qualifying periods are eligible for this award, and Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) Midshipmen ae only eligible if they participated in a summer cruise that was in an area which qualified for a campaign medal. MoreHide
Criteria The Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal is awarded to members of the Armed Forces who, after July 1, 1958, participate in specified United States operations or those in direct support of the United Natio... The Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal is awarded to members of the Armed Forces who, after July 1, 1958, participate in specified United States operations or those in direct support of the United Nations or friendly foreign nations MoreHide
Criteria The Sea Service Deployment Ribbon is awarded to members of the Navy and Marine Corps assigned to U.S. homeported (including Hawaii and Alaska) ships, deploying units, or Fleet Marine Force commands, f... The Sea Service Deployment Ribbon is awarded to members of the Navy and Marine Corps assigned to U.S. homeported (including Hawaii and Alaska) ships, deploying units, or Fleet Marine Force commands, for 12 months accumulated sea duty, or for duty with the Fleet Marine Force that includes at least one deployment of 90 consecutive days. MoreHide
Description In February 1986 an almost bloodless revolution brought Corazon Aquino into office as the seventh president of the Republic of the Philippines. Aquino had been swept into office on a wave of high expeIn February 1986 an almost bloodless revolution brought Corazon Aquino into office as the seventh president of the Republic of the Philippines. Aquino had been swept into office on a wave of high expectations that she would be able to right all of the wrongs done to the Philippines under Marcos. When she could not do this and when the same problems recurred, Filipinos grew disillusioned.
Philippine politics between 1986 and 1991 was punctuated by Aquino's desperate struggle to survive physically and politically a succession of coup attempts, culminating in a large, bloody, and well-financed attempt in December 1989. This attempt, led by renegade Colonel Gregorio Honasan, involved upwards of 3,000 troops, including elite Scout Rangers and marines, in a coordinated series of attacks on Camp Crame and Camp Aquinaldo, Fort Bonifacio, Cavite Naval Base, Villamor Air Base, and on Malacañang itself, which was dive-bombed by vintage T-28 aircraft. Although Aquino was not hurt in this raid, the situation appeared desperate, for not only were military commanders around the country waiting to see which side would triumph in Manila, but the people of Manila, who had poured into the streets to protect Aquino in February 1986, stayed home this time.
Aquino found it necessary to request United States support to put down this uprising. In November-December 1989 US forces moved to evacuate Americans during the coup attempt, and generally protect US interests in the Philippines. During this operation, a large special operations force was formed, USAF fighter aircraft patrolled above rebel air bases, and two aircraft carriers were positioned off the Philippines.
In early December 1989, the USS Enterprise participated in Operation Classic Resolve, President Bush's response to Philippine President Corazon Aquino's request for air support during the rebel coup attempt. Bush approved the use of US F-4 fighter jets stationed at Clark Air Base on Luzon to buzz the rebel planes at their base, fire in front of them if any attempted to take off, and shoot them down if they did. The buzzing by US planes soon caused the coup to collapse. On 02 December 1989 President Bush reported that on 01 December US fighter planes from Clark Air Base in the Philippines had assisted the Aquino government to repel a coup attempt. In addition, 100 marines were sent from the US Navy base at Subic Bay to protect the US Embassy in Manila. Enterprise remained on station conducting flight operations in the waters outside Manila Bay.
Politically this coup was a disaster for Aquino. Her vice president openly allied himself with the coup plotters and called for her to resign. Even Aquino's staunchest supporters saw her need for United States air support as a devastating sign of weakness. Most damaging of all, when the last rebels finally surrendered, they did so in triumph and with a promise from the government that they would be treated "humanely, justly, and fairly." One of the devastating results of this insurrection was that just when the economy had finally seemed to turn around, investors were frightened off, especially since much of the combat took place in the business haven of Makati. Tourism, a major foreign-exchange earner, came to a halt. Business leaders estimated that the mutiny cost the economy US$1.5 billion.... More
The U.S. Navy has turned out in full force to reaffirm security ties with its Asian allies, with a senior commander showing skepticism about Moscow's declared intent to scale down its regional presen
The U.S. Navy has turned out in full force to reaffirm security ties with its Asian allies, with a senior commander showing skepticism about Moscow's declared intent to scale down its regional presence.
The navy dispatched 53 major warships to the western Pacific in the largest maneuver of its kind, a series of bilateral exercises with Japan and South Korea called PACEX '89.Vice Adm. Henry Mauz, commander of the U.S. 7th Fleet, denied Saturday that Washington was looking for a NATO-like alignment among allies in the region.
"There is no operational linkage and I don't think it's possible in the forseeable future," Mauz told reporters flown to the aircraft carrier Enterprise.
Although Moscow had spoken about unilateral cutbacks, the number of Soviet ships in the region remained about the same, he said, adding: "They are moving in their top-line vessels here from their Northern and Baltic fleets."
In a monthlong exercise with Japan which ended this week, army and air force units held joint maneuvers involving as many as 100 Japanese ships, the 53 U.S. vessels and about 400 aircraft from both sides.
The 7th Fleet is to conduct exercises with South Korean navy units in the next few weeks.
A Soviet Embassy official in Tokyo said Moscow was highly critical of the exercise. "It only raises tension in the Asia-Pacific region," the official said.
Aboard the Enterprise, reporters watched a classic World War II-style gunnery practice as the battleships USS New Jersey and Missouri fired salvoes of live ammunition against a target ship.
Japanese newspapers have criticized the joint exercise as a move toward forming a military bloc that would stand even if Moscow decreased its military presence.
Japan's opposition Socialists, who dealt a severe blow to the pro-American ruling Liberal Democrats in July parliamentary elections, want to scale down military ties with Washington.
"PACEX '89 has a strong political meaning," said Haruo Fujii, a Japanese military analyst and specialist in Soviet military affairs.
"There is a sense of crisis on the part of the United States and therefore it attaches great importance to the Asia-Pacific region," he said.
In the Philippines, the United States faces the possibility of losing its largest naval and air force bases in the region - Subic Bay and Clark Air Base - if Washington fails to renew a base treaty with Manila by 1992.
And some U.S. congressmen have said the Pentagon should halve the number of troops stationed in South Korea.
Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev announced a substantial cutback in the Far East, mainly among troops stationed along the Sino-Soviet border.
But both Japan and the United States have said the Soviet Union was improving the quality of its units while cutting down on actual numbers.