Criteria The Purple Heart may be awarded to any member of the Armed Forces of the United States who, while serving under competent authority in any capacity with one of the Armed Forces, has been wounded, kill... The Purple Heart may be awarded to any member of the Armed Forces of the United States who, while serving under competent authority in any capacity with one of the Armed Forces, has been wounded, killed, or who has died or may die of wounds received in armed combat or as a result of an act of international terrorism. MoreHide
Criteria The Combat Action Ribbon is a personal decoration awarded to members of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard (when operating under the control of the Navy) in the grade of captain (or colonel in th... The Combat Action Ribbon is a personal decoration awarded to members of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard (when operating under the control of the Navy) in the grade of captain (or colonel in the Marine Corps) and below who have actively participated in ground or surface combat. MoreHide
Criteria The Good Conduct Medal was initially awarded to enlisted men of the Navy who completed a second (or subsequent) enlistment of three years under Continuous Service; obtained a general average of 4.5 on... The Good Conduct Medal was initially awarded to enlisted men of the Navy who completed a second (or subsequent) enlistment of three years under Continuous Service; obtained a general average of 4.5 on their Conduct Records, and who were recommended by their commanding officer. In time it came to be awarded for the honorable completion of a fixed term of service. MoreHide
Criteria The American Defense Service Medal was awarded for service in the Armed Forces between September 8, 1939, and December 7, 1941. Army members had to serve 12 months to be eligible, but Navy and Marine ... The American Defense Service Medal was awarded for service in the Armed Forces between September 8, 1939, and December 7, 1941. Army members had to serve 12 months to be eligible, but Navy and Marine Corps members were eligible based on any length of service. MoreHide
Criteria The Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal was awarded for for qualifying service within the Asiatic-Pacific Theater of Operations between December 7, 1941, and March 2, 1946, under any of the following condi... The Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal was awarded for for qualifying service within the Asiatic-Pacific Theater of Operations between December 7, 1941, and March 2, 1946, under any of the following conditions: On permanent assignment within the Asiatic-Pacific Theater; or, For service in a passenger status or on temporary duty for 30 consecutive days or 60 non-consecutive days; or, For service in active combat in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater of Operations against the enemy and awarded a combat decoration or furnished a certificate by the commanding general of a corps, higher unit, or independent force that the individual actually participated in combat. MoreHide
Description The attack on Pearl Harbor, also known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor, the Hawaii Operation or Operation AI by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, and Operation Z during planning, was a surpriThe attack on Pearl Harbor, also known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor, the Hawaii Operation or Operation AI by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, and Operation Z during planning, was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' entry into World War II.
Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions the Empire of Japan planned in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States. Over the next seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U.S.-held Philippines, Guam and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong.
The attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time. The base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese fighter planes, bombers, and torpedo planes in two waves, launched from six aircraft carriers. All eight U.S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but Arizona were later raised, and six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war. The Japanese also sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, and one minelayer. 188 U.S. aircraft were destroyed; 2,403 Americans were killed and 1,178 others were wounded. Important base installations such as the power station, shipyard, maintenance, and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building (also home of the intelligence section) were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, and 64 servicemen killed. One Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured.
The attack came as a profound shock to the American people and led directly to the American entry into World War II in both the Pacific and European theaters. The following day, December 8, the United States declared war on Japan. Domestic support for non-interventionism, which had been fading since the Fall of France in 1940, disappeared. Clandestine support of the United Kingdom (e.g., the Neutrality Patrol) was replaced by active alliance. Subsequent operations by the U.S. prompted Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy to declare war on the U.S. on December 11, which was reciprocated by the U.S. the same day.
From the 1950s, several writers alleged that parties high in the U.S. and British governments knew of the attack in advance and may have let it happen (or even encouraged it) with the aim of bringing the U.S. into war. However, this advance-knowledge conspiracy theory is rejected by mainstream historians.
There were numerous historical precedents for unannounced military action by Japan. However, the lack of any formal warning, particularly while negotiations were still apparently ongoing, led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7, 1941, "a date which will live in infamy". Because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, the attack on Pearl Harbor was judged by the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime.... More
People You Remember Hugh R. Alexander, Lt. Comdr Stanley W. Allen, Ens (VO-1) Hal J. Allison, F2c Leon Arickx, Sea1c KenneHugh R. Alexander, Lt. Comdr Stanley W. Allen, Ens (VO-1) Hal J. Allison, F2c Leon Arickx, Sea1c Kenneth B. Armstrong, Mldr1c Daryle E. Artley, QM2c John C. Auld, Sea2c John A. Austin, Chf Carp Walter H. Backman, RM2c Gerald J. Bailey, Sea1c Robert E. Bailey, SF3c Wilbur F. Ballance, Sea1c Layton T. Banks, Cox Leroy K. Barber, F1c Malcolm J. Barber, F1c Randolph H. Barber, F2c Cecil E. Barncord, EM3c Wilber C. Barrett, Sea2c Harold E. Bates, F1c Ralph C. Battles, F2c Earl P. Baum, Sea1c Howard W. Bean, RM3c Walter S. Belt, Jr., F1c Robert J. Bennett, F3c Harding C. Blackburn, Y3c William E. Blanchard, Bmkr1c Clarence A. Blaylock, F3c Leo Blitz, MM2c Rudolph Blitz, F1c John G. Bock Jr., Sea2c Paul L. Boemer, Cox James B. Booe, Cbmster James B. Boring, F2c Ralph M. Boudreaux, MAtt1c Lawrence A. Boxrucker, F2c Raymond D. Boynton, Sea2c Carl M. Bradley, F2c Orix V. Brandt, Sea1c Jack A. Breedlove, FC3c Randall W. Brewer, MAtt1c William Brooks, Sea1c Wesley J. Brown, F1c William G. Bruesewitz, Sea1c James R. Buchanan, MM2c Earl G. Burch, Bkr3c Oliver K. Burger, WT1c Millard Burk, Jr., Sea1c Rodger C. Butts, SC1c Archie Callahan, Jr., MAtt2c Raymond R. Camery, F1c William V. Campbell, Sea2c Murry R. Cargile, Sea1c Harold F. Carney, MM1c Joseph W. Carroll, F2c Edward E. Casinger, F2c Biacio Casola, Sea1c Carles R. Casto, F1c Richard E. Casto, F2c James T. Chesire, CPhM(PA) Patrick L. Chess, SF3c David Clark, Jr., Sea2c Gerald L. Clayton, SK2c Hubert P. Clement, FC1c Floyd F. Clifford, Sea2c George A. Coke, Sea1c James E. Collins, Sea1c John G. Connolly, Chf Pay Clk Keefe R. Connolly, HA1c Edward L. Conway, EM1c Grant C. Cook, Jr., F1c Robert L. Corn, FFC1c Beoin H. Corzatt, F1c John W. Craig, SK1c Warren H. Crim, F3c Samuel W. Crowder, F1c William M. Curry, EM1c Glenn G. Cyriack, SK2c Marshall E. Darby, Jr., Ens James W. Davenport, Jr., F1c Francis D. Day, CWT (PA) Leslie P. Delles, EM3c Ralph A. Derrington, CMM (PA) Francis E. Dick, Mus2c Leaman R. Dill, EM2c Kenneth E. Doernenburg, F1c John M. Donald, SF3c Carl D. Dorr, F2c Bernard V. Doyle, Sea2c Stanislaw F. Drwall, Pmkr1c Cyril I. Dusset, MAtt1c Buford H. Dyer, Sea1c Wallace E. Eakes, SK3c Eugene K. Eberhardt, MM1c David B. Edmonston, Sea2c Earl M. Ellis, RM3c Bruce H. Ellison, RM3c Julius Ellsberry, MAtt1c John C. England, Ens Ignacio C. Farfan, MAtt1c Luther J. Farmer, MM1c Lawrence H. Fecho, F1c Charlton H. Ferguson, Mus2c Robert A. Fields, EM3c William M. Finnegan, Ens Francis C. Flaherty, Ens James M. Flanagan, Sea2c Felicismo Florese, OS2c Walter C. Foley, Sea1c George P. Foote, SK3c George C. Ford, F2c Joy C. French, Sea2c Tedd M. Furr, CCM (AA) Michael Galajdik, F1c Martin A. Gara, F2c Jesus F. Garcia, MAtt2c Eugene Garris, MAtt2c Paul H. Gebser, MM1c Leonard R. Geller, F1c George T. George, Sea2c George H. Gibson, EM3c George E. Giesa, F2c Quentin J. Gifford, RM2c George Gilbert, FC2c Warren C. Gillette, Sea1c Benjamin E. Gilliard, MAtt1c Arthur Glenn, MM1c Daryl H. Goggin, Mach Jack R. Goldwater, RM3c Charles C. Gomez, Jr., Sea2c George M. Gooch, EM3c Clifford G. Goodwin, Sea1c Robert Goodwin, SC3c Duff Gordon, CMsmth Claude O. Gowey, F1c Wesley E. Graham, Sea1c Arthur M. Grand Pre, F1c Thomas E. Griffith, RM3c Edgar D. Gross, WT2c Vernon N. Grow, Sea2c Daniel L. Guisinger, Jr., Sea1c William I. Gurganus, CEM (AA) William F. Gusie, FC3c Hubert P. Hall, Sea2c Robert E. Halterman, Sea1c Harold W. Ham, MM2c Dale R. Hamlin, GM3c Eugene P. Hann, GM3c Francis L. Hannon, SF3c George Hanson, MM1c Robert J. Harr, F1c Charles H. Harris, EM3c Daniel F. Harris, CFC (PA) Louis E. Harris, Jr., Mus2c Albert E. Hayden, CEM (PA) Harold L. Head, Sea2c Robert W. Headington, Sea1c William F. Hellstern, GM2c Floyd D. Helton, Sea2c Jimmie L. Henrichsen, Sea2c William E. Henson, Jr., Sea2c Harvey C. Herber, EM1c George Herbert, GM1c Austin H. Hesler, SM3c Denis H. Hiskett, F1c Joseph P. Hittorff, Jr., Ens Frank S. Hoag, Jr., RM3c Herbert J. Hoard, CSK (PA) Joseph W. Hoffman, Mus1c Kenneth L. Holm, F3c Harry R. Holmes, F3c James W. Holzhauer, Sea1c Edwin C. Hopkins, F3c Chester G. Hord, SK3c Frank A. Hryniewicz, Sea1c Charles E. Hudson, WT1c Lorentz E. Hultgren, MM2c Robert M. Hunter, Ens Claydon I. C. Iverson, F3c Willie Jackson, OC1c Herbert B. Jacobson, F3c Challis R. James, Sea2c George W. Jarding, F3c Kenneth L. Jayne, F3c Theodore Q. Jensen, RM3c Jesse B. Jenson, GM3c Charles H. Johannes, Sea2c Billy J. Johnson, F1c Edward D. Johnson, F1c Joseph M. Johnson, Sea1c Jim H. Johnston, F1c Charles A. Jones, Sea2c Fred M. Jones, MM1c Jerry Jones, MAtt3c Julian B. Jordan, Lt. Wesley V. Jordan, Sea1c Thomas V. Jurashen, Sea2c Albert U. Kane, F1c John A. Karli, Sea1c Howard V. Keffer, RM3c Ralph H. Keil, Sea1c Donald G. Keller, Sea1c Joe M. Kelley, Sea2c Warren J. Kempf, RM3c Leo T. Keninger, F1c William H. Kennedy, F1c Elmer T. Kerestes, F1c David L. Kesler, Bkr2c William A. Klasing, EM3c Verne F. Knipp, Cox Hans C. Kvalnes, Sea2c William L. Kvidera, CM3c D. T. Kyser, Sea2c Elliott D. Larsen, Mus1c Johnnie C. Laurie, MAtt1c Elmer P. Lawrence, Sea1c Willard I. Lawson, F3c Gerald G. Lehman, F3c Myron K. Lehman, Sea2c Lionel W. Lescault, Bgmstr2c Harold W. Lindsey, Sea2c John H. Lindsley, F3c Alfred E. Livingston, F3c Clarence M. Lockwood, WT2c Adolph J. Loebach, FC3c Vernon T. Luke, MM1c Octavius Mabine, MAtt1c Howard S. Magers, Sea2c Michael Malek, Sea2c Algeo V. Malfante, SF2c Walter B. Manning, EM1c Henri C. Mason, Mus1c Joseph K. Maule, Sea1c Edwin B. McCabe WT1c Donald R. McCloud, FC2c James O. McDonald, F1c Bert E. McKeeman, F1c Hale McKissack, Sea1c Lloyd E. McLaughlin, Sea2c Earl R. Melton, MM1c Herbert F. Melton, BM2c Archie T. Miles, MM2c Wallace G. Mitchell, Sea1c Charles A. Montgomery, RM3c John M. Mulick, HA1c Ray H. Myers, Sea2c George E. Naegle, Sea1c Elmer D. Nail, F1c Paul A. Nash, FC1c Don O. Neher, EM3c Arthur C. Neuenschwander, GM1c Sam D. Nevill, Y3c Wilbur F. Newton, Sea1c Carl Nichols, Sea2c Harry E. Nichols, SK3c Frank E. Nicoles, F1c Arnold M. Nielsen, BM1c Laverne A. Nigg, Sea2c Joe R. Nightingale, Sea1c Charles E. Nix, SM3c Camillus M. O'Grady, Sea1c Charles R. Ogle, F1c Eli Olsen, SK3c Jarvis G. Outland, F1c Lawrence J. Overley, FC2c Alphard S. Owsley, EM3c Millard C. Pace, F1c James Palides, Jr., Mus2c Calvin H. Palmer, Sea2c Wilferd D. Palmer, Sea2c George L. Paradis, PhM3c Isaac Parker, MAtt3c Dale F. Pearce, Sea2c Walter R. Pentico, Sea2c Stephen Pepe, WT1c Charles F. Perdue, SF1c Wiley J. Perway, Bmkr2c Milo E. Phillips, WT1c James N. Phipps, Sea2c Gerald H. Pirtle, F1c Rudolph V. Piskuran, Sea2c Herbert J. Poindexter, Jr., Sea1c Brady O. Prewitt, Sea2c Robert L. Pribble, FC3c George F. Price, F1c Lewis B. Pride, Jr., Ens Jasper L. Pue, Jr., F3c Paul S. Raimond, Sea1c Eldon C. Ray, SK3c Dan E. Reagan, F1c Leo B. Regan, F1c Irvin F. Rice, RM3c Porter L. Rich, WT2c Clyde Ridenour, Jr., RM3c David J. Riley, Sea2c Russell C. Roach, Sea1c Joseph M. Robertson, Sea2c Harold W. Roesch, Sea1c Walter B. Rogers, F1c Joseph C. Rouse, Sea1c Charles L. Ruse, Mus2c Edmund T. Ryan, Y3c Roman W. Sadlowski, EM3c Kenneth H. Sampson, Sea1c Dean S. Sanders, CMM (PA) Charles L. Saunders, Sea2c Lyal J. Savage, Sea1c John E. Savidge, Sea1c Paul E. Saylor, F1c Walter F. Schleiter, F1c Herman Schmidt, GM3c Aloysius H. Schmitt, Lt. (jg) (ChC) Andrew J. Schmitz, F1c John H. Schoonover, PhM1c Bernard O. Scott, MAtt1c Chester E. Seaton, F1c Verdi D. Sederstrom, Ens William L. Sellon, Sea2c Everett I. Severinson, SF1c William K. Shafer, F2c William J. Shanahan, Jr., SM3c Edward J. Shelden, FC1c William G. Silva, GM1c Eugene M. Skaggs, SM1c Garold L. Skiles, Sea2c Edward F. Slapikas, Sea1c Leonard F. Smith, Msmth1c Merle A. Smith, EM3c Rowland H. Smith, Mus1c Walter H. Sollie, WT1c James C. Solomon, Sea1c Maurice V. Spangler, Sea1c Kirby R. Stapleton, Sea1c Ulis C. Steely, MM1c Walter C. Stein, Sea1c Samuel C. Steiner, F1c Charles M. Stern, Jr., Ens Everett R. Stewart, MM2c Lewis S. Stockdate, Ens Donald A. Stott, Sea1c Robert T. Stout, FC3c James Stouten, CBM (AA) Milton R. Surratt, Sea1c Charles H. Swanson, MM1c Edward E. Talbert, Sea1c Rangner F. Tanner, Jr., Sea2c Monroe Temple, Sea1c Houston Temples, Sea1c Benjamin C. Terhune, F2c Arthur R. Thinnes, Sea2c Charles W. Thompson, F1c Clarence Thompson, SC1c George A. Thompson, Sea2c Irvin A. R. Thompson, Ens William M. Thompson, Ens Richard J. Thomson, Sea2c Cecil H. Thornton, Sea2c Robert L. Thrombley, Sea2c David F. Tidball, Sea1c Lloyd R. Timm, Sea2c Lewis F. Tindall, F1c Dante S. Tini, RM3c Henry G. Tipton, Sea1c Everett C. Titterington, F1c Neal K. Todd, F1c Natale I. Torti, Sea1c Orval A. Tranbarger, Sea1c Harold F. Trapp, FC2c William H. Trapp, EM3c Shelby Treadway, GM3c William D. Tucker, F1c Victor P. Tumlinson, FC3c Billy Turner, Sea1c Louis J. Tushla, F1c Russell O. Ufford, Sea2c Lowell E. Valley, F2c Durrell Wade, AMM2c Lewis L. Wagoner, Sea2c Harry E. Walker, SK1c Robert N. Walkowiak, F3c Eugene A. Walpole, Sea2c Charles E. Walters, Sea2c James R. Ward, Sea1c Edward Wasielewski, Sea1c Richard L. Watson, Sea1c James C. Webb, F1c William E. Welch, Sea1c Alfred F. Wells, MM1c Ernest R. West, Sea1c John D. Wheeler, F2c Claude White, CWT (PA) Jack D. White, Sea1 Alton W. Whitson, EM3c Eugene W. Wicker, Sea1c Lloyd P. Wiegand, Mus2c George J. Wilcox, Jr., Sea2c Albert l. Williams, Mus2c James C. Williams, Sea1c Wilbur S. Williams, OS3c Bernard R. Wimmer, FC1c Everett G. Windle, Sea2c Starring B. Winfield, RM3c Rex E. Wise, F1c Frank Wood, Sea2c Lawrence E. Woods, F1c Winfred O. Woods, MM1c Creighton H. Workman, F1c John L. Wortham, GM2c Paul R. Wright, CWT (PA) Eldon P. Wyman, Ens Martin D. Young, F2c Robert V. Young, Sea1c Joseph J. Yurko, WT1c Thomas Zvansky, CSM (PA)... More